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base.py

from sqlalchemy import exceptions, sql, schema, util, types, logging
import StringIO, sys, re

00004 class ConnectionProvider(object):
    """defines an interface that returns raw Connection objects (or compatible)."""
00006     def get_connection(self):
        """this method should return a Connection or compatible object from a DBAPI which
        also contains a close() method.  
        It is not defined what context this connection belongs to.  It may be newly connected, 
        returned from a pool, part of some other kind of context such as thread-local,
        or can be a fixed member of this object."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00013     def dispose(self):
        """releases all resources corresponding to this ConnectionProvider, such 
        as any underlying connection pools."""
        raise NotImplementedError()

00018 class Dialect(sql.AbstractDialect):
    """Defines the behavior of a specific database/DBAPI.

    Any aspect of metadata defintion, SQL query generation, execution, result-set handling,
    or anything else which varies between databases is defined under the general category of 
    the Dialect.  The Dialect acts as a factory for other database-specific object implementations 
    including ExecutionContext, Compiled, DefaultGenerator, and TypeEngine.
    
    All Dialects implement the following attributes:

    positional - True if the paramstyle for this Dialect is positional

    paramstyle - the paramstyle to be used (some DBAPIs support multiple paramstyles)

    supports_autoclose_results - usually True; if False, indicates that rows returned by fetchone()
    might not be just plain tuples, and may be "live" proxy objects which still require the cursor
    to be open in order to be read (such as pyPgSQL which has active filehandles for BLOBs).  in that
    case, an auto-closing ResultProxy cannot automatically close itself after results are consumed.

    convert_unicode - True if unicode conversion should be applied to all str types

    encoding - type of encoding to use for unicode, usually defaults to 'utf-8'
    """
00041     def create_connect_args(self, opts):
        """given a dictionary of key-valued connect parameters, returns a tuple 
        consisting of a *args/**kwargs suitable to send directly to the dbapi's connect function.
        The connect args will have any number of the following keynames:  host, hostname, database, dbanme,
        user,username, password, pw, passwd, filename."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00047     def convert_compiled_params(self, parameters):
        """given a sql.ClauseParameters object, returns an array or dictionary suitable to pass 
        directly to this Dialect's DBAPI's execute method."""
00050     def type_descriptor(self, typeobj):
        """provides a database-specific TypeEngine object, given the generic object
        which comes from the types module.  Subclasses will usually use the adapt_type()
        method in the types module to make this job easy."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00055     def oid_column_name(self):
        """returns the oid column name for this dialect, or None if the dialect cant/wont support OID/ROWID."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00058     def supports_sane_rowcount(self):
        """Provided to indicate when MySQL is being used, which does not have standard behavior
        for the "rowcount" function on a statement handle.  """
        raise NotImplementedError()
00062     def schemagenerator(self, engine, proxy, **params):
        """returns a schema.SchemaVisitor instance that can generate schemas, when it is
        invoked to traverse a set of schema objects. 

        schemagenerator is called via the create() method on Table, Index, and others.
        """
        raise NotImplementedError()
00069     def schemadropper(self, engine, proxy, **params):
        """returns a schema.SchemaVisitor instance that can drop schemas, when it is
        invoked to traverse a set of schema objects. 

        schemagenerator is called via the drop() method on Table, Index, and others.
        """
        raise NotImplementedError()
00076     def defaultrunner(self, engine, proxy, **params):
        """returns a schema.SchemaVisitor instances that can execute defaults."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00079     def compiler(self, statement, parameters):
        """returns a sql.ClauseVisitor which will produce a string representation of the given
        ClauseElement and parameter dictionary.  This object is usually a subclass of 
        ansisql.ANSICompiler.  

        compiler is called within the context of the compile() method."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00086     def reflecttable(self, connection, table):
        """given an Connection and a Table object, reflects its columns and properties from the database."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
    def has_table(self, connection, table_name):
        raise NotImplementedError()
    def has_sequence(self, connection, sequence_name):
        raise NotImplementedError()
00093     def dbapi(self):
        """subclasses override this method to provide the DBAPI module used to establish
        connections."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00097     def get_default_schema_name(self, connection):
        """returns the currently selected schema given an connection"""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00100     def execution_context(self):
        """returns a new ExecutionContext object."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00103     def do_begin(self, connection):
        """provides an implementation of connection.begin()"""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00106     def do_rollback(self, connection):
        """provides an implementation of connection.rollback()"""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00109     def do_commit(self, connection):
        """provides an implementation of connection.commit()"""
        raise NotImplementedError()
    def do_executemany(self, cursor, statement, parameters):
        raise NotImplementedError()
    def do_execute(self, cursor, statement, parameters):
        raise NotImplementedError()
00116     def compile(self, clauseelement, parameters=None):
        """compile the given ClauseElement using this Dialect.
        
        a convenience method which simply flips around the compile() call
        on ClauseElement."""
        return clauseelement.compile(dialect=self, parameters=parameters)
            
00123 class ExecutionContext(object):
    """a messenger object for a Dialect that corresponds to a single execution.  The Dialect
    should provide an ExecutionContext via the create_execution_context() method.  
    The pre_exec and post_exec methods will be called for compiled statements, afterwhich
    it is expected that the various methods last_inserted_ids, last_inserted_params, etc.
    will contain appropriate values, if applicable."""
00129     def pre_exec(self, engine, proxy, compiled, parameters):
        """called before an execution of a compiled statement.  proxy is a callable that
        takes a string statement and a bind parameter list/dictionary."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00133     def post_exec(self, engine, proxy, compiled, parameters):
        """called after the execution of a compiled statement.  proxy is a callable that
        takes a string statement and a bind parameter list/dictionary."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00137     def get_rowcount(self, cursor):
        """returns the count of rows updated/deleted for an UPDATE/DELETE statement"""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00140     def supports_sane_rowcount(self):
        """Indicates if the "rowcount" DBAPI cursor function works properly.
        
        Currently, MySQLDB does not properly implement this function."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00145     def last_inserted_ids(self):
        """return the list of the primary key values for the last insert statement executed.
        
        This does not apply to straight textual clauses; only to sql.Insert objects compiled against 
        a schema.Table object, which are executed via statement.execute().  The order of items in the 
        list is the same as that of the Table's 'primary_key' attribute.
        
        In some cases, this method may invoke a query back to the database to retrieve the data, based on
        the "lastrowid" value in the cursor."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00155     def last_inserted_params(self):
        """return a dictionary of the full parameter dictionary for the last compiled INSERT statement.
        
        Includes any ColumnDefaults or Sequences that were pre-executed."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00160     def last_updated_params(self):
        """return a dictionary of the full parameter dictionary for the last compiled UPDATE statement.
        
        Includes any ColumnDefaults that were pre-executed."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00165     def lastrow_has_defaults(self):
        """return True if the last row INSERTED via a compiled insert statement contained PassiveDefaults.
        
        The presence of PassiveDefaults indicates that the database inserted data beyond that which we 
        passed to the query programmatically."""
        raise NotImplementedError()

00172 class Connectable(object):
    """interface for an object that can provide an Engine and a Connection object which correponds to that Engine."""
00174     def contextual_connect(self):
        """returns a Connection object which may be part of an ongoing context."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
00177     def create(self, entity, **kwargs):
        """creates a table or index given an appropriate schema object."""
        raise NotImplementedError()
    def drop(self, entity, **kwargs):
        raise NotImplementedError()
    def execute(self, object, *multiparams, **params):
        raise NotImplementedError()
    def _not_impl(self):
        raise NotImplementedError()
    engine = property(_not_impl, doc="returns the Engine which this Connectable is associated with.")

00188 class Connection(Connectable):
    """represents a single DBAPI connection returned from the underlying connection pool.  Provides
    execution support for string-based SQL statements as well as ClauseElement, Compiled and DefaultGenerator objects.
    provides a begin method to return Transaction objects.
    
    The Connection object is **not** threadsafe."""
    def __init__(self, engine, connection=None, close_with_result=False):
        self.__engine = engine
        self.__connection = connection or engine.raw_connection()
        self.__transaction = None
        self.__close_with_result = close_with_result
    def _get_connection(self):
        try:
            return self.__connection
        except AttributeError:
            raise exceptions.InvalidRequestError("This Connection is closed")
    engine = property(lambda s:s.__engine, doc="The Engine with which this Connection is associated (read only)")
    connection = property(_get_connection, doc="The underlying DBAPI connection managed by this Connection.")
    should_close_with_result = property(lambda s:s.__close_with_result, doc="Indicates if this Connection should be closed when a corresponding ResultProxy is closed; this is essentially an auto-release mode.")
    def _create_transaction(self, parent):
        return Transaction(self, parent)
00209     def connect(self):
        """connect() is implemented to return self so that an incoming Engine or Connection object can be treated similarly."""
        return self
00212     def contextual_connect(self, **kwargs):
        """contextual_connect() is implemented to return self so that an incoming Engine or Connection object can be treated similarly."""
        return self
    def begin(self):
        if self.__transaction is None:
            self.__transaction = self._create_transaction(None)
            return self.__transaction
        else:
            return self._create_transaction(self.__transaction)
    def in_transaction(self):
        return self.__transaction is not None
    def _begin_impl(self):
        self.__engine.logger.info("BEGIN")
        self.__engine.dialect.do_begin(self.connection)
    def _rollback_impl(self):
        self.__engine.logger.info("ROLLBACK")
        self.__engine.dialect.do_rollback(self.connection)
        self.__connection.close_open_cursors()
        self.__transaction = None
    def _commit_impl(self):
        self.__engine.logger.info("COMMIT")
        self.__engine.dialect.do_commit(self.connection)
        self.__transaction = None
00235     def _autocommit(self, statement):
        """when no Transaction is present, this is called after executions to provide "autocommit" behavior."""
        # TODO: have the dialect determine if autocommit can be set on the connection directly without this 
        # extra step
        if not self.in_transaction() and re.match(r'UPDATE|INSERT|CREATE|DELETE|DROP|ALTER', statement.lstrip().upper()):
            self._commit_impl()
    def _autorollback(self):
        if not self.in_transaction():
            self._rollback_impl()
    def close(self):
        try:
            c = self.__connection
        except AttributeError:
            return
        self.__connection.close()
        self.__connection = None
        del self.__connection
    def scalar(self, object, parameters=None, **kwargs):
        return self.execute(object, parameters, **kwargs).scalar()
    def execute(self, object, *multiparams, **params):
        return Connection.executors[type(object).__mro__[-2]](self, object, *multiparams, **params)
    def execute_default(self, default, **kwargs):
        return default.accept_schema_visitor(self.__engine.dialect.defaultrunner(self.__engine, self.proxy, **kwargs))
    def execute_text(self, statement, parameters=None):
        cursor = self._execute_raw(statement, parameters)
        return ResultProxy(self.__engine, self, cursor)
    def _params_to_listofdicts(self, *multiparams, **params):
        if len(multiparams) == 0:
            return [params]
        elif len(multiparams) == 1:
            if multiparams[0] == None:
                return [{}]
            elif isinstance (multiparams[0], list) or isinstance (multiparams[0], tuple):
                return multiparams[0]
            else:
                return [multiparams[0]]
        else:
            return multiparams
    def execute_clauseelement(self, elem, *multiparams, **params):
        executemany = len(multiparams) > 0
        if executemany:
            param = multiparams[0]
        else:
            param = params
        return self.execute_compiled(elem.compile(engine=self.__engine, parameters=param), *multiparams, **params)
00280     def execute_compiled(self, compiled, *multiparams, **params):
        """executes a sql.Compiled object."""
        cursor = self.connection.cursor()
        parameters = [compiled.get_params(**m) for m in self._params_to_listofdicts(*multiparams, **params)]
        if len(parameters) == 1:
            parameters = parameters[0]
        def proxy(statement=None, parameters=None):
            if statement is None:
                return cursor

            parameters = self.__engine.dialect.convert_compiled_params(parameters)
            self._execute_raw(statement, parameters, cursor=cursor, context=context)
            return cursor
        context = self.__engine.dialect.create_execution_context()
        context.pre_exec(self.__engine, proxy, compiled, parameters)
        proxy(str(compiled), parameters)
        context.post_exec(self.__engine, proxy, compiled, parameters)
        return ResultProxy(self.__engine, self, cursor, context, typemap=compiled.typemap)
        
    # poor man's multimethod/generic function thingy
    executors = {
        sql.ClauseElement : execute_clauseelement,
        sql.ClauseVisitor : execute_compiled,
        schema.SchemaItem:execute_default,
        str.__mro__[-2] : execute_text
    }
    
00307     def create(self, entity, **kwargs):
        """creates a table or index given an appropriate schema object."""
        return self.__engine.create(entity, connection=self, **kwargs)
00310     def drop(self, entity, **kwargs):
        """drops a table or index given an appropriate schema object."""
        return self.__engine.drop(entity, connection=self, **kwargs)
00313     def reflecttable(self, table, **kwargs):
        """reflects the columns in the given table from the database."""
        return self.__engine.reflecttable(table, connection=self, **kwargs)
    def default_schema_name(self):
        return self.__engine.dialect.get_default_schema_name(self)
    def run_callable(self, callable_):
        return callable_(self)
    def _execute_raw(self, statement, parameters=None, cursor=None, context=None, **kwargs):
        if cursor is None:
            cursor = self.connection.cursor()
        try:
            self.__engine.logger.info(statement)
            self.__engine.logger.info(repr(parameters))
            if parameters is not None and isinstance(parameters, list) and len(parameters) > 0 and (isinstance(parameters[0], list) or isinstance(parameters[0], dict)):
                self._executemany(cursor, statement, parameters, context=context)
            else:
                self._execute(cursor, statement, parameters, context=context)
            self._autocommit(statement)
        except:
            raise
        return cursor

    def _execute(self, c, statement, parameters, context=None):
        if parameters is None:
            if self.__engine.dialect.positional:
                parameters = ()
            else:
                parameters = {}
        try:
            self.__engine.dialect.do_execute(c, statement, parameters, context=context)
        except Exception, e:
            self._autorollback()
            #self._rollback_impl()
            if self.__close_with_result:
                self.close()
            raise exceptions.SQLError(statement, parameters, e)
    def _executemany(self, c, statement, parameters, context=None):
        try:
            self.__engine.dialect.do_executemany(c, statement, parameters, context=context)
        except Exception, e:
            self._autorollback()
            #self._rollback_impl()
            if self.__close_with_result:
                self.close()
            raise exceptions.SQLError(statement, parameters, e)
00358     def proxy(self, statement=None, parameters=None):
        """executes the given statement string and parameter object.
        the parameter object is expected to be the result of a call to compiled.get_params().
        This callable is a generic version of a connection/cursor-specific callable that
        is produced within the execute_compiled method, and is used for objects that require
        this style of proxy when outside of an execute_compiled method, primarily the DefaultRunner."""
        parameters = self.__engine.dialect.convert_compiled_params(parameters)
        return self._execute_raw(statement, parameters)

00367 class Transaction(object):
    """represents a Transaction in progress.
    
    the Transaction object is **not** threadsafe."""
    def __init__(self, connection, parent):
        self.__connection = connection
        self.__parent = parent or self
        self.__is_active = True
        if self.__parent is self:
            self.__connection._begin_impl()
    connection = property(lambda s:s.__connection, doc="The Connection object referenced by this Transaction")
    is_active = property(lambda s:s.__is_active)
    def rollback(self):
        if not self.__parent.__is_active:
            return
        if self.__parent is self:
            self.__connection._rollback_impl()
            self.__is_active = False
        else:
            self.__parent.rollback()
    def commit(self):
        if not self.__parent.__is_active:
            raise exceptions.InvalidRequestError("This transaction is inactive")
        if self.__parent is self:
            self.__connection._commit_impl()
            self.__is_active = False

00394 class Engine(sql.Executor, Connectable):
    """
    Connects a ConnectionProvider, a Dialect and a CompilerFactory together to 
    provide a default implementation of SchemaEngine.
    """
    def __init__(self, connection_provider, dialect, echo=None):
        self.connection_provider = connection_provider
        self.dialect=dialect
        self.echo = echo
        self.logger = logging.instance_logger(self)

    name = property(lambda s:sys.modules[s.dialect.__module__].descriptor()['name'])
    engine = property(lambda s:s)
    echo = logging.echo_property()
    
    def dispose(self):
        self.connection_provider.dispose()
00411     def create(self, entity, connection=None, **kwargs):
        """creates a table or index within this engine's database connection given a schema.Table object."""
        self._run_visitor(self.dialect.schemagenerator, entity, connection=connection, **kwargs)
00414     def drop(self, entity, connection=None, **kwargs):
        """drops a table or index within this engine's database connection given a schema.Table object."""
        self._run_visitor(self.dialect.schemadropper, entity, connection=connection, **kwargs)
    def execute_default(self, default, **kwargs):
        connection = self.contextual_connect()
        try:
            return connection.execute_default(default, **kwargs)
        finally:
            connection.close()
    
    def _func(self):
        return sql._FunctionGenerator(self)
    func = property(_func)
00427     def text(self, text, *args, **kwargs):
        """returns a sql.text() object for performing literal queries."""
        return sql.text(text, engine=self, *args, **kwargs)

    def _run_visitor(self, visitorcallable, element, connection=None, **kwargs):
        if connection is None:
            conn = self.contextual_connect()
        else:
            conn = connection
        try:
            element.accept_schema_visitor(visitorcallable(self, conn.proxy, connection=conn, **kwargs), traverse=False)
        finally:
            if connection is None:
                conn.close()
    
00442     def transaction(self, callable_, connection=None, *args, **kwargs):
        """executes the given function within a transaction boundary.  this is a shortcut for
        explicitly calling begin() and commit() and optionally rollback() when execptions are raised.
        The given *args and **kwargs will be passed to the function, as well as the Connection used 
        in the transaction."""
        if connection is None:
            conn = self.contextual_connect()
        else:
            conn = connection
        try:
            trans = conn.begin()
            try:
                ret = callable_(conn, *args, **kwargs)
                trans.commit()
                return ret
            except:
                trans.rollback()
                raise
        finally:
            if connection is None:
                conn.close()
            
    def run_callable(self, callable_, connection=None, *args, **kwargs):
        if connection is None:
            conn = self.contextual_connect()
        else:
            conn = connection
        try:
            return callable_(conn, *args, **kwargs)
        finally:
            if connection is None:
                conn.close()
        
    def execute(self, statement, *multiparams, **params):
        connection = self.contextual_connect(close_with_result=True)
        return connection.execute(statement, *multiparams, **params)

    def scalar(self, statement, *multiparams, **params):
        return self.execute(statement, *multiparams, **params).scalar()
        
    def execute_compiled(self, compiled, *multiparams, **params):
        connection = self.contextual_connect(close_with_result=True)
        return connection.execute_compiled(compiled, *multiparams, **params)
        
00486     def compiler(self, statement, parameters, **kwargs):
        return self.dialect.compiler(statement, parameters, engine=self, **kwargs)

00489     def connect(self, **kwargs):
        """returns a newly allocated Connection object."""
        return Connection(self, **kwargs)
    
00493     def contextual_connect(self, close_with_result=False, **kwargs):
        """returns a Connection object which may be newly allocated, or may be part of some 
        ongoing context.  This Connection is meant to be used by the various "auto-connecting" operations."""
        return Connection(self, close_with_result=close_with_result, **kwargs)
            
00498     def reflecttable(self, table, connection=None):
        """given a Table object, reflects its columns and properties from the database."""
        if connection is None:
            conn = self.contextual_connect()
        else:
            conn = connection
        try:
            self.dialect.reflecttable(conn, table)
        finally:
            if connection is None:
                conn.close()
    def has_table(self, table_name):
        return self.run_callable(lambda c: self.dialect.has_table(c, table_name))
        
00512     def raw_connection(self):
        """returns a DBAPI connection."""
        return self.connection_provider.get_connection()

00516     def log(self, msg):
        """logs a message using this SQLEngine's logger stream."""
        self.logger.info(msg)

00520 class ResultProxy(object):
    """wraps a DBAPI cursor object to provide access to row columns based on integer
    position, case-insensitive column name, or by schema.Column object. e.g.:
    
    row = fetchone()

    col1 = row[0]    # access via integer position

    col2 = row['col2']   # access via name

    col3 = row[mytable.c.mycol] # access via Column object.  
    
    ResultProxy also contains a map of TypeEngine objects and will invoke the appropriate
    convert_result_value() method before returning columns, as well as the ExecutionContext
    corresponding to the statement execution.  It provides several methods for which
    to obtain information from the underlying ExecutionContext.
    """
    class AmbiguousColumn(object):
        def __init__(self, key):
            self.key = key
        def dialect_impl(self, dialect):
            return self
        def convert_result_value(self, arg, engine):
            raise exceptions.InvalidRequestError("Ambiguous column name '%s' in result set! try 'use_labels' option on select statement." % (self.key))
    
00545     def __init__(self, engine, connection, cursor, executioncontext=None, typemap=None):
        """ResultProxy objects are constructed via the execute() method on SQLEngine."""
        self.connection = connection
        self.dialect = engine.dialect
        self.cursor = cursor
        self.engine = engine
        self.closed = False
        if executioncontext is not None:
            self.__executioncontext = executioncontext
            self.rowcount = executioncontext.get_rowcount(cursor)
        else:
            self.rowcount = cursor.rowcount
        self.__key_cache = {}
        self.__echo = engine.echo == 'debug'
        metadata = cursor.description
        self.props = {}
        self.keys = []
        i = 0
        if metadata is not None:
            for item in metadata:
                # sqlite possibly prepending table name to colnames so strip
                colname = item[0].split('.')[-1].lower()
                if typemap is not None:
                    rec = (typemap.get(colname, types.NULLTYPE), i)
                else:
                    rec = (types.NULLTYPE, i)
                if rec[0] is None:
                    raise DBAPIError("None for metadata " + colname)
                if self.props.setdefault(colname, rec) is not rec:
                    self.props[colname] = (ResultProxy.AmbiguousColumn(colname), 0)
                self.keys.append(colname)
                self.props[i] = rec
                i+=1
    def _executioncontext(self):
        try:
            return self.__executioncontext
        except AttributeError:
            raise exceptions.InvalidRequestError("This ResultProxy does not have an execution context with which to complete this operation.  Execution contexts are not generated for literal SQL execution.")
    executioncontext = property(_executioncontext)
    
    def close(self):
        """close this ResultProxy, and the underlying DBAPI cursor corresponding to the execution.
        
        If this ResultProxy was generated from an implicit execution, the underlying Connection will
        also be closed (returns the underlying DBAPI connection to the connection pool.)
        
        This method is also called automatically when all result rows are exhausted."""
        if not self.closed:
            self.closed = True
            self.cursor.close()
            if self.connection.should_close_with_result and self.dialect.supports_autoclose_results:
                self.connection.close()
    
    def _convert_key(self, key):
        """given a key, which could be a ColumnElement, string, etc., matches it to the 
        appropriate key we got from the result set's metadata; then cache it locally for quick re-access."""
        try:
            return self.__key_cache[key]
        except KeyError:
            if isinstance(key, sql.ColumnElement):
                try:
                    rec = self.props[key._label.lower()]
                except KeyError:
                    try:
                        rec = self.props[key.key.lower()]
                    except KeyError:
#                        rec = self.props[key.name.lower()]
                        try:
                            rec = self.props[key.name.lower()]
                        except KeyError:
                            raise exceptions.NoSuchColumnError("Could not locate column in row for column '%s'" % str(key))
            elif isinstance(key, str):
                rec = self.props[key.lower()]
            else:
                rec = self.props[key]
            self.__key_cache[key] = rec
            return rec
            
    def _has_key(self, row, key):
        try:
            self._convert_key(key)
            return True
        except exceptions.NoSuchColumnError:
            return False
        
    def _get_col(self, row, key):
        rec = self._convert_key(key)
        return rec[0].dialect_impl(self.dialect).convert_result_value(row[rec[1]], self.dialect)
    
    def __iter__(self):
        while True:
            row = self.fetchone()
            if row is None:
                raise StopIteration
            else:
                yield row
     
    def last_inserted_ids(self):
        """return last_inserted_ids() from the underlying ExecutionContext.
        
        See ExecutionContext for details."""
        return self.executioncontext.last_inserted_ids()
    def last_updated_params(self):
        """return last_updated_params() from the underlying ExecutionContext.
        
        See ExecutionContext for details."""
        return self.executioncontext.last_updated_params()
    def last_inserted_params(self):
        """return last_inserted_params() from the underlying ExecutionContext.
        
        See ExecutionContext for details."""
        return self.executioncontext.last_inserted_params()
    def lastrow_has_defaults(self):
        """return lastrow_has_defaults() from the underlying ExecutionContext.
        
        See ExecutionContext for details."""
        return self.executioncontext.lastrow_has_defaults()
    def supports_sane_rowcount(self):
        """return supports_sane_rowcount() from the underlying ExecutionContext.
        
        See ExecutionContext for details."""
        return self.executioncontext.supports_sane_rowcount()
        
    def fetchall(self):
        """fetch all rows, just like DBAPI cursor.fetchall()."""
        l = []
        for row in self.cursor.fetchall():
            l.append(RowProxy(self, row))
        self.close()
        return l
            
    def fetchone(self):
        """fetch one row, just like DBAPI cursor.fetchone()."""
        row = self.cursor.fetchone()
        if row is not None:
            return RowProxy(self, row)
        else:
            # controversy!  can we auto-close the cursor after results are consumed ?
            # what if the returned rows are still hanging around, and are "live" objects 
            # and not just plain tuples ?
            self.close()
            return None

    def scalar(self):
        """fetch the first column of the first row, and close the result set."""
        row = self.cursor.fetchone()
        try:
            if row is not None:
                return RowProxy(self, row)[0]
            else:
                return None
        finally:
            self.close()
    
00699 class RowProxy(object):
    """proxies a single cursor row for a parent ResultProxy.  Mostly follows 
    "ordered dictionary" behavior, mapping result values to the string-based column name,
    the integer position of the result in the row, as well as Column instances which
    can be mapped to the original Columns that produced this result set (for results
    that correspond to constructed SQL expressions)."""
00705     def __init__(self, parent, row):
        """RowProxy objects are constructed by ResultProxy objects."""
        self.__parent = parent
        self.__row = row
        if self.__parent._ResultProxy__echo:
            self.__parent.engine.logger.debug("Row " + repr(row))
00711     def close(self):
        """close the parent ResultProxy."""
        self.__parent.close()
    def __iter__(self):
        for i in range(0, len(self.__row)):
            yield self.__parent._get_col(self.__row, i)
    def __eq__(self, other):
        return (other is self) or (other == tuple([self.__parent._get_col(self.__row, key) for key in range(0, len(self.__row))]))
    def __repr__(self):
        return repr(tuple([self.__parent._get_col(self.__row, key) for key in range(0, len(self.__row))]))
00721     def has_key(self, key):
        """return True if this RowProxy contains the given key."""
        return self.__parent._has_key(self.__row, key)
    def __getitem__(self, key):
        return self.__parent._get_col(self.__row, key)
    def __getattr__(self, name):
        try:
            return self.__parent._get_col(self.__row, name)
        except KeyError, e:
            raise AttributeError(e.args[0])
00731     def items(self):
        """return a list of tuples, each tuple containing a key/value pair."""
        return [(key, getattr(self, key)) for key in self.keys()]
00734     def keys(self):
        """return the list of keys as strings represented by this RowProxy."""
        return self.__parent.keys
00737     def values(self):
        """return the values represented by this RowProxy as a list."""
        return list(self)
    def __len__(self): 
        return len(self.__row)

00743 class SchemaIterator(schema.SchemaVisitor):
    """a visitor that can gather text into a buffer and execute the contents of the buffer."""
00745     def __init__(self, engine, proxy, **params):
        """construct a new SchemaIterator.
        
        engine - the Engine used by this SchemaIterator
        
        proxy - a callable which takes a statement and bind parameters and executes it, returning
        the cursor (the actual DBAPI cursor).  The callable should use the same cursor repeatedly."""
        self.proxy = proxy
        self.engine = engine
        self.buffer = StringIO.StringIO()

00756     def append(self, s):
        """append content to the SchemaIterator's query buffer."""
        self.buffer.write(s)

00760     def execute(self):
        """execute the contents of the SchemaIterator's buffer."""
        try:
            return self.proxy(self.buffer.getvalue(), None)
        finally:
            self.buffer.truncate(0)

00767 class DefaultRunner(schema.SchemaVisitor):
    """a visitor which accepts ColumnDefault objects, produces the dialect-specific SQL corresponding
    to their execution, and executes the SQL, returning the result value.
    
    DefaultRunners are used internally by Engines and Dialects.  Specific database modules should provide
    their own subclasses of DefaultRunner to allow database-specific behavior."""
    def __init__(self, engine, proxy):
        self.proxy = proxy
        self.engine = engine

    def get_column_default(self, column):
        if column.default is not None:
            return column.default.accept_schema_visitor(self)
        else:
            return None

    def get_column_onupdate(self, column):
        if column.onupdate is not None:
            return column.onupdate.accept_schema_visitor(self)
        else:
            return None

00789     def visit_passive_default(self, default):
        """passive defaults by definition return None on the app side,
        and are post-fetched to get the DB-side value"""
        return None

00794     def visit_sequence(self, seq):
        """sequences are not supported by default"""
        return None

    def exec_default_sql(self, default):
        c = sql.select([default.arg], engine=self.engine).compile()
        return self.proxy(str(c), c.get_params()).fetchone()[0]

00802     def visit_column_onupdate(self, onupdate):
        if isinstance(onupdate.arg, sql.ClauseElement):
            return self.exec_default_sql(onupdate)
        elif callable(onupdate.arg):
            return onupdate.arg()
        else:
            return onupdate.arg

00810     def visit_column_default(self, default):
        if isinstance(default.arg, sql.ClauseElement):
            return self.exec_default_sql(default)
        elif callable(default.arg):
            return default.arg()
        else:
            return default.arg

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